Chemistry by Theodore Brown and H. LeMay (Hardback) (2023)


1. Introduction: Matter, Energy, and Measurement

2. Atoms, Molecules, and Ions

3. Chemical Reactions and Reaction Stoichiometry

4. Reactions in Aqueous Solution

5. Thermochemistry

6. Electronic Structure of Atoms

7. Periodic Properties of the Elements

8. Basic Concepts of Chemical Bonding

9. Molecular Geometry and Bonding Theories

10. Gases

11. Liquids and Intermolecular Forces

12. Solids and Modern Materials

13. Properties of Solutions

14. Chemical Kinetics

15. Chemical Equilibrium

16. Acid-Base Equilibria

17. Additional Aspects of Aqueous Equilibria

18. Chemistry of the Environment

19. Chemical Thermodynamics

20. Electrochemistry

21. Nuclear Chemistry

22. Chemistry of the Nonmetals

23. Transition Metals and Coordination Chemistry

24. The Chemistry of Life: Organic and Biological Chemistry


Mathematical Operations

Properties of Water

Thermodynamic Quantities for Selected Substances at 298.15 K (25 C)

Aqueous Equilibrium Constants

Standard Reduction Potentials at 25 C

Answers to Selected Exercises

Answers to Give It Some Thought

Answers to Go Figure

Answer to Selected Practice Exercises


Photo and Art Credits


1. Introduction: Matter, Energy, and Measurement

1.1 The Study of Chemistry

The Atomic and Molecular Perspective of Chemistry

Why Study Chemistry?

1.2 Classifications of Matter

States of Matter

Pure Substances




1.3 Properties of Matter

Physical and Chemical Changes

Separation of Mixtures

1.4 The Nature of Energy

Kinetic Energy and Potential Energy

1.5 Units of Measurement

SI Units

Length and Mass


Derived SI Units



Units of Energy

1.6 Uncertainty in Measurement

Precision and Accuracy

Significant Figures

Significant Figures in Calculations

1.7 Dimensional Analysis

Conversion Factors

Using Two or More Conversion Factors

Conversions Involving Volume

Chemistry Put To Work: Chemistry and the Chemical Industry

A Closer Look: The Scientific Method

Chemistry Put To Work: Chemistry in the News

Strategies For Success: Estimating Answers

Strategies For Success: The Importance of Practice

Strategies For Success: The Features of This Book

2. Atoms, Molecules, and Ions

2.1 The Atomic Theory of Matter

2.2 The Discovery of Atomic Structure

Cathode Rays and Electrons


The Nuclear Model of the Atom

2.3 The Modern View of Atomic Structure

Atomic Numbers, Mass Numbers, and Isotopes

2.4 Atomic Weights

The Atomic Mass Scale

Atomic Weight

2.5 The Periodic Table

2.6 Molecules and Molecular Compounds

Molecules and Chemical Formulas

Molecular and Empirical Formulas

Picturing Molecules

2.7 Ions and Ionic Compounds

Predicting Ionic Charges

Ionic Compounds

2.8 Naming Inorganic Compounds

Names and Formulas of Ionic Compounds

Names and Formulas of Acids

Names and Formulas of Binary Molecular Compounds

2.9 Some Simple Organic Compounds


Some Derivatives of Alkanes

A Closer Look: Basic Forces

A Closer Look: The Mass Spectrometer

A Closer Look: What Are Coins Made Of?

Chemistry and Life: Elements Required by Living Organisms

Strategies For Success: How to Take a Test

3. Chemical Reactions and Reaction Stoichiometry

3.1 Chemical Equations

Balancing Equations

A Step-by-Step Example of Balancing a Chemical Equation

Indicating the States of Reactants and Products

3.2 Simple Patterns of Chemical Reactivity

Combination and Decomposition Reactions

Combustion Reactions

3.3 Formula Weights

Formula and Molecular Weights

Percentage Composition from Chemical Formulas

3.4 Avogadro's Number and the Mole

Molar Mass

Interconverting Masses and Moles

Interconverting Masses and Numbers of Particles

3.5 Empirical Formulas from Analyses

Molecular Formulas from Empirical Formulas

Combustion Analysis

3.6 Quantitative Information from Balanced Equations

3.7 Limiting Reactants

Theoretical and Percent Yields

Strategies For Success: Problem Solving

Chemistry and Life: Glucose Monitoring

Strategies For Success: Design an Experiment

4. Reactions in Aqueous Solution

4.1 General Properties of Aqueous Solutions

Electrolytes and Nonelectrolytes

How Compounds Dissolve in Water

Strong and Weak Electrolytes

4.2 Precipitation Reactions

Solubility Guidelines for Ionic Compounds

Exchange (Metathesis) Reactions

Ionic Equations and Spectator Ions

4.3 Acids, Bases, and Neutralization Reactions



Strong and Weak Acids and Bases

Identifying Strong and Weak Electrolytes

Neutralization Reactions and Salts

Neutralization Reactions with Gas Formation

4.4 Oxidation-Reduction Reactions

Oxidation and Reduction

Oxidation Numbers

Oxidation of Metals by Acids and Salts

The Activity Series

4.5 Concentrations of Solutions


Expressing the Concentration of an Electrolyte

Interconverting Molarity, Moles, and Volume


4.6 Solution Stoichiometry and Chemical Analysis


Chemistry Put To Work: Antacids

Strategies For Success: Analyzing Chemical Reactions

5. Thermochemistry

5.1 The Nature of Chemical Energy

5.2 The First Law of Thermodynamics

System and Surroundings

Internal Energy

Relating E to Heat and Work

Endothermic and Exothermic Processes

State Functions

5.3 Enthalpy

Pressure-Volume Work

Enthalpy Change

5.4 Enthalpies of Reaction

5.5 Calorimetry

Heat Capacity and Specific Heat

Constant-Pressure Calorimetry

Bomb Calorimetry (Constant-Volume Calorimetry)

5.6 Hess's Law

5.7 Enthalpies of Formation

Using Enthalpies of Formation to Calculate Enthalpies of Reaction

5.8 Bond Enthalpies

Bond Enthalpies and the Enthalpies of Reactions

5.9 Foods and Fuels



Other Energy Sources

A Closer Look: Energy, Enthalpy, and P-V Work

A Closer Look: Using Enthalpy as a Guide

Chemistry and Life: The Regulation of Body Temperature

Chemistry Put To Work: The Scientific and Political Challenges of Biofuels

6. Electronic Structure of Atoms

6.1 The Wave Nature of Light

6.2 Quantized Energy and Photons

Hot Objects and the Quantization of Energy

The Photoelectric Effect and Photons

6.3 Line Spectra and the Bohr Model

Line Spectra

Bohr's Model

The Energy States of the Hydrogen Atom

Limitations of the Bohr Model

6.4 The Wave Behavior of Matter

The Uncertainty Principle

6.5 Quantum Mechanics and Atomic Orbitals

Orbitals and Quantum Numbers

6.6 Representations of Orbitals

The s Orbitals

The Orbitals

The and Orbitals

6.7 Many-Electron Atoms

Orbitals and Their Energies

Electron Spin and the Pauli Exclusion Principle

6.8 Electron Configurations

Hund's Rule

Condensed Electron Configurations

Transition Metals

The Lanthanides and Actinides

6.9 Electron Configurations and the Periodic Table

Anomalous Electron Configurations

A Closer Look: Measurement and the Uncertainty Principle

A Closer Look: Thought Experiments and Schroedinger's Cat

A Closer Look: Probability Density and Radial Probability Functions

Chemistry and Life: Nuclear Spin and Magnetic Resonance Imaging

7. Periodic Properties of the Elements

7.1 Development of the Periodic Table

7.2 Effective Nuclear Charge

7.3 Sizes of Atoms and Ions

Periodic Trends in Atomic Radii

Periodic Trends in Ionic Radii

7.4 Ionization Energy

Variations in Successive Ionization Energies

Periodic Trends in First Ionization Energies

Electron Configurations of Ions

7.5 Electron Affinity

Periodic Trends in Electron Affinity

7.6 Metals, Nonmetals, and Metalloids




7.7 Trends for Group 1A and Group 2A Metals

Group 1A: The Alkali Metals

Group 2A: The Alkaline Earth Metals

7.8 Trends for Selected Nonmetals


Group 6A: The Oxygen Group

Group 7A: The Halogens

Group 8A: The Noble Gases

A Closer Look: Effective Nuclear Charge

Chemistry Put To Work: Ionic Size and Lithium-Ion Batteries

Chemistry and Life: The Improbable Development of Lithium Drugs

8. Basic Concepts of Chemical Bonding

8.1 Lewis Symbols and the Octet Rule

The Octet Rule

8.2 Ionic Bonding

Energetics of Ionic Bond Formation

Electron Configurations of Ions of the s- and p-Block Elements

Transition Metal Ions

8.3 Covalent Bonding

Lewis Structures

Multiple Bonds

8.4 Bond Polarity and Electronegativity


Electronegativity and Bond Polarity

Dipole Moments

Comparing Ionic and Covalent Bonding

8.5 Drawing Lewis Structures

Formal Charge and Alternative Lewis Structures

8.6 Resonance Structures

Resonance in Benzene

8.7 Exceptions to the Octet Rule

Odd Number of Electrons

Less Than an Octet of Valence Electrons

More Than an Octet of Valence Electrons

8.8 Strengths and Lengths of Covalent Bonds

A Closer Look: Calculation of Lattice Energies: The Born-Haber Cycle

A Closer Look: Oxidation Numbers, Formal Charges, and Actual Partial Charges

9. Molecular Geometry and Bonding Theories

9.1 Molecular Shapes

Applying the VSEPR Model to Determine Molecular Shapes

Effect of Nonbonding Electrons and Multiple Bonds on Bond Angles

Molecules with Expanded Valence Shells

Shapes of Larger Molecules

9.2 The VSEPR Model

Applying the VSEPR Model to Determine Molecular Shapes

Effect of Nonbonding Electrons and Multiple Bonds on Bond Angles

Molecules with Expanded Valence Shells

Shapes of Larger Molecules

9.3 Molecular Shape and Molecular Polarity

9.4 Covalent Bonding and Orbital Overlap

9.5 Hybrid Orbitals

sp Hybrid Orbitals

sp2 and sp3 Hybrid Orbitals

Hypervalent Molecules

Hybrid Orbital Summary

9.6 Multiple Bonds

Resonance Structures, Delocalization, and p Bonding

General Conclusions about s and p

9.7 Molecular Orbitals

Molecular Orbitals of the Hydrogen Molecule

Bond Order

9.8 Bonding in Period 2 Diatomic Molecules

Molecular Orbitals for Li2 and Be2

Molecular Orbitals from 2p Atomic Orbitals

Electron Configurations for B2 through Ne2

Electron Configurations and Molecular Properties

Heteronuclear Diatomic Molecules

Chemistry and Life: The Chemistry of Vision

A Closer Look: Phases in Atomic and Molecular Orbitals

Chemistry Put To Work: Orbitals and Energy

10. Gases

10.1 Characteristics of Gases

10.2 Pressure

Atmospheric Pressure and the Barometer

10.3 The Gas Laws

The Pressure-Volume Relationship: Boyle's Law

The Temperature-Volume Relationship: Charles's Law

The Quantity-Volume Relationship: Avogadro's Law

10.4 The Ideal-Gas Equation

Relating the Ideal-Gas Equation and the Gas Laws

10.5 Further Applications of the Ideal-Gas Equation

Gas Densities and Molar Mass

Volumes of Gases in Chemical Reactions

10.6 Gas Mixtures and Partial Pressures

Partial Pressures and Mole Fractions

10.7 The Kinetic-Molecular Theory of Gases

Distributions of Molecular Speed

Application of Kinetic-Molecular Theory to the Gas Laws

10.8 Molecular Effusion and Diffusion

Graham's Law of Effusion

Diffusion and Mean Free Path

10.9 Real Gases: Deviations from Ideal Behavior

The van der Waals Equation

Strategies for Success: Calculations Involving Many Variables

A Closer Look: The Ideal-Gas Equation

Chemistry Put To Work: Gas Separations

11. Liquids and Intermolecular Forces

11.1 A Molecular Comparison of Gases, Liquids, and Solids

11.2 Intermolecular Forces

Dispersion Forces

Dipole-Dipole Interactions

Hydrogen Bonding

Ion-Dipole Forces

Comparing Intermolecular Forces

11.3 Select Properties of Liquids


Surface Tension

Capillary Action

11.4 Phase Changes

Energy Changes Accompany Phase Changes

Heating Curves

Critical Temperature and Pressure

11.5 Vapor Pressure

Volatility, Vapor Pressure, and Temperature

Vapor Pressure and Boiling Point

11.6 Phase Diagrams

The Phase Diagrams of and

11.7 Liquid Crystals

Types of Liquid Crystals

Chemistry Put To Work: Ionic Liquids

A Closer Look: The Clausius-Clapeyron Equation

12. Solids and Modern Materials

12.1 Classification of Solids

12.2 Structures of Solids

Crystalline and Amorphous Solids

Unit Cells and Crystal Lattices

Filling the Unit Cell

12.3 Metallic Solids

The Structures of Metallic Solids

Close Packing


12.4 Metallic Bonding

Electron-Sea Model

Molecular Orbital Model

12.5 Ionic Solids

Structures of Ionic Solids

12.6 Molecular Solids

12.7 Covalent-Network Solids


Semiconductor Doping

12.8 Polymers

Making Polymers

Structure and Physical Properties of Polymers

12.9 Nanomaterials

Semiconductors on the Nanoscale

Metals on the Nanoscale

Carbon on the Nanoscale

A Closer Look: X-ray Diffraction

Chemistry Put To Work: Alloys of Gold

Chemistry Put To Work: Solid-State Lighting

Chemistry Put To Work: Modern Materials in the Automobile

Chemistry Put To Work: Microporous and Mesoporous Materials

13. Properties of Solutions

13.1 The Solution Process

The Natural Tendency toward Mixing

The Effect of Intermolecular Forces on Solution Formation

Energetics of Solution Formation

Solution Formation and Chemical Reactions

13.2 Saturated Solutions and Solubility

13.3 Factors Affecting Solubility

Solute-Solvent Interactions

Pressure Effects

Temperature Effects

13.4 Expressing Solution Concentration

Mass Percentage, ppm, and ppb

Mole Fraction, Molarity, and Molality

Converting Concentration Units

13.5 Colligative Properties

Vapor-Pressure Lowering

Boiling-Point Elevation

Freezing-Point Depression


Determination of Molar Mass from Colligative Properties

13.6 Colloids

Hydrophilic and Hydrophobic Colloids

Colloidal Motion in Liquids

Chemistry and Life: Fat-Soluble and Water-Soluble Vitamins

Chemistry and Life: Blood Gases and Deep-Sea Diving

A Closer Look: Ideal Solutions with Two or More Volatile Components

A Closer Look: The van't Hoff Factor

Chemistry and Life: Sickle-Cell Anemia

14. Chemical Kinetics

14.1 Factors That Affect Reaction Rates

14.2 Reaction Rates

Change of Rate with Time

Instantaneous Rate

Reaction Rates and Stoichiometry

14.3 Concentration and Rate Laws

Reaction Orders: The Exponents in the Rate Law

Magnitudes and Units of Rate Constants

Using Initial Rates to Determine Rate Laws

14.4 The Change of Concentration with Time

First-Order Reactions

Second-Order Reactions

Zero-Order Reactions


14.5 Temperature and Rate

The Collision Model

The Orientation Factor

Activation Energy

The Arrhenius Equation

Determining the Activation Energy

14.6 Reaction Mechanisms

Elementary Reactions

Multistep Mechanisms

Rate Laws for Elementary Reactions

The Rate-Determining Step for a Multistep Mechanism

Mechanisms with a Slow Initial Step

Mechanisms with a Fast Initial Step

14.7 Catalysis

Homogeneous Catalysis

Heterogeneous Catalysis


A Closer Look: Using Spectroscopic Methods to Measure Reaction Rates: Beer's Law

Chemistry Put To Work: Methyl Bromide in the Atmosphere

Chemistry Put To Work: Catalytic Converters

Chemistry and Life: Nitrogen Fixation and Nitrogenase

15. Chemical Equilibrium

15.1 The Concept of Equilibrium

15.2 The Equilibrium Constant

Evaluating Kc

Equilibrium Constants in Terms of Pressure, Kp

Equilibrium Constants and Units

15.3 Understanding and Working with Equilibrium Constants

The Magnitude of Equilibrium Constants

The Direction of the Chemical Equation and K

Relating Chemical Equation Stoichiometry and Equilibrium Constants

15.4 Heterogeneous Equilibria

15.5 Calculating Equilibrium Constants

15.6 Applications of Equilibrium Constants

Predicting the Direction of Reaction

Calculating Equilibrium Concentrations

15.7 Le Chatelier's Principle

Change in Reactant or Product Concentration

Effects of Volume and Pressure Changes

Effect of Temperature Changes

The Effect of Catalysts

Chemistry Put To Work: The Haber Process

A Closer Look: Temperature Changes and Le Chatelier's Principle

Chemistry Put To Work: Controlling Nitric Oxide Emissions

16. Acid-Base Equilibria

16.1 Arrhenius Acids and Bases

16.2 Bronsted-Lowry Acids and Bases

The H+ Ion in Water

Proton-Transfer Reactions

Conjugate Acid-Base Pairs

Relative Strengths of Acids and Bases

16.3 The Autoionization of Water

The Ion Product of Water

16.4 The pH Scale

pOH and Other "p" Scales

Measuring pH

16.5 Strong Acids and Bases

Strong Acids

Strong Bases

16.6 Weak Acids

Calculating Ka from pH

Percent Ionization

Using Ka to Calculate pH

Polyprotic Acids

16.7 Weak Bases

Types of Weak Bases

16.8 Relationship Between Ka and Kb

16.9 Acid-Base Properties of Salt Solutions

An Anion's Ability to React with Water

A Cation's Ability to React with Water

Combined Effect of Cation and Anion in Solution

16.10 Acid-Base Behavior and Chemical Structure

Factors That Affect Acid Strength

Binary Acids


Carboxylic Acids

16.11 Lewis Acids and Bases

A Closer Look: Polyprotic Acids

Chemistry Put To Work: Amines and Amine Hydrochlorides

Chemistry and Life: The Amphiprotic Behavior of Amino Acids

17. Additional Aspects of Aqueous Equilibria

17.1 The Common-Ion Effect

17.2 Buffers

Composition and Action of Buffers

Calculating the pH of a Buffer

Buffer Capacity and pH Range

Addition of Strong Acids or Bases to Buffers

17.3 Acid-Base Titrations

Strong Acid-Strong Base Titrations

Weak Acid-Strong Base Titrations

Titrating with an Acid-Base Indicator

Titrations of Polyprotic Acids

17.4 Solubility Equilibria

The Solubility-Product Constant, Ksp

Solubility and Ksp

17.5 Factors That Affect Solubility

The Common-Ion Effect

Solubility and pH

Formation of Complex Ions


17.6 Precipitation and Separation of Ions

Selective Precipitation of Ions

17.7 Qualitative Analysis for Metallic Elements

Chemistry and Life: Blood as a Buffered Solution

A Closer Look: Limitations of Solubility Products

Chemistry and Life: Tooth Decay and Fluoridation

A Closer Look: Lead Contamination in Drinking Water

18. Chemistry of the Environment

18.1 Earth's Atmosphere

Composition of the Atmosphere

Photochemical Reactions in the Atmosphere

Ozone in the Stratosphere

18.2 Human Activities and Earth's Atmosphere

The Ozone Layer and Its Depletion

Sulfur Compounds and Acid Rain

Nitrogen Oxides and Photochemical Smog

Greenhouse Gases: Water Vapor, Carbon Dioxide, and Climate

18.3 Earth's Water

The Global Water Cycle

Salt Water: Earth's Oceans and Seas

Freshwater and Groundwater

18.4 Human Activities and Water Quality

Dissolved Oxygen and Water Quality

Water Purification: Desalination

Water Purification: Municipal Treatment

18.5 Green Chemistry

Supercritical Solvents

Greener Reagents and Processes

A Closer Look: Other Greenhouse Gases

A Closer Look: The Ogallala Aquifer-A Shrinking Resource

A Closer Look: Fracking and Water Quality

Chemistry and Life: Ocean Acidification

19. Chemical Thermodynamics

19.1 Spontaneous Processes

Seeking a Criterion for Spontaneity

Reversible and Irreversible Processes

19.2 Entropy and the Second Law of Thermodynamics

The Relationship between Entropy and Heat

S for Phase Changes

The Second Law of Thermodynamics

19.3 The Molecular Interpretation of Entropy and the Third Law of Thermodynamics

Expansion of a Gas at the Molecular Level

Boltzmann's Equation and Microstates

Molecular Motions and Energy

Making Qualitative Predictions about S

The Third Law of Thermodynamics

19.4 Entropy Changes in Chemical Reactions

Temperature Variation of Entropy

Standard Molar Entropies

Calculating the Standard Entropy Change for a Reaction Entropy Changes in the Surroundings

19.5 Gibbs Free Energy

Standard Free Energy of Formation

19.6 Free Energy and Temperature

19.7 Free Energy and the Equilibrium Constant

Free Energy under Nonstandard Conditions

Relationship between G Degrees and K

A Closer Look: The Entropy Change When a Gas Expands Isothermally

Chemistry and Life: Entropy and Human Society

A Closer Look: What's "Free" About Free Energy?

Chemistry and Life: Driving Nonspontaneous Reactions: Coupling Reactions

20. Electrochemistry

20.1 Oxidation States and Oxidation-Reduction Reactions

20.2 Balancing Redox Equations


Balancing Equations by the Method of Half-Reactions

Balancing Equations for Reactions Occurring in Basic Solution

20.3 Voltaic Cells

20.4 Cell Potentials Under Standard Conditions

Standard Reduction Potentials

Strengths of Oxidizing and Reducing Agents

20.5 Free Energy and Redox Reactions

Emf, Free Energy, and the Equilibrium Constant

20.6 Cell Potentials Under Nonstandard Conditions

The Nernst Equation

Concentration Cells

20.7 Batteries and Fuel Cells

Lead-Acid Battery

Alkaline Battery

Nickel-Cadmium and Nickel-Metal Hydride Batteries

Lithium-Ion Batteries

Hydrogen Fuel Cells

20.8 Corrosion

Corrosion of Iron (Rusting)

Preventing Corrosion of Iron

20.9 Electrolysis

Quantitative Aspects of Electrolysis

A Closer Look: Electrical Work

Chemistry and Life: Heartbeats and Electrocardiography

Chemistry Put To Work: Batteries for Hybrid and Electric Vehicles

Chemistry Put To Work: Electrometallurgy of Aluminum

21. Nuclear Chemistry

21.1 Radioactivity and Nuclear Equations

Nuclear Equations

Types of Radioactive Decay

21.2 Patterns of Nuclear Stability

Neutron-to-Proton Ratio

Radioactive Decay Chains

Further Observations

21.3 Nuclear Transmutations

Accelerating Charged Particles

Reactions Involving Neutrons

Transuranium Elements

21.4 Rates of Radioactive Decay

Radiometric Dating

Calculations Based on Half-Life

21.5 Detection of Radioactivity


21.6 Energy Changes in Nuclear Reactions

Nuclear Binding Energies

21.7 Nuclear Power: Fission

Nuclear Reactors

Nuclear Waste

21.8 Nuclear Power: Fusion

21.9 Radiation in the Environment and Living Systems

Radiation Doses

Chemistry and Life: Medical Applications of Radiotracers

A Closer Look: The Dawning of the Nuclear Age

A Closer Look: Nuclear Synthesis of the Elements

Chemistry and Life: Radiation Therapy

22. Chemistry of the Nonmetals

22.1 Periodic Trends and Chemical Reactions

Chemical Reactions

22.2 Hydrogen

Isotopes of Hydrogen

Properties of Hydrogen

Production of Hydrogen

Uses of Hydrogen

Binary Hydrogen Compounds

22.3 Group 8A: The Noble Gases

Noble-Gas Compounds

22.4 Group 7A: The Halogens

Properties and Production of the Halogens

Uses of the Halogens

The Hydrogen Halides

Interhalogen Compounds

Oxyacids and Oxyanions

22.5 Oxygen

Properties of Oxygen

Production of Oxygen

Uses of Oxygen



Peroxides and Superoxides

22.6 The Other Group 6A Elements: S, Se, Te, and Po

Occurrence and Production of S, Se, and Te

Properties and Uses of Sulfur, Selenium, and Tellurium


Oxides, Oxyacids, and Oxyanions of Sulfur

22.7 Nitrogen

Properties of Nitrogen

Production and Uses of Nitrogen

Hydrogen Compounds of Nitrogen

Oxides and Oxyacids of Nitrogen

22.8 The Other Group 5A Elements: P, As, Sb, and Bi

Occurrence, Isolation, and Properties of Phosphorus

Phosphorus Halides

Oxy Compounds of Phosphorus

22.9 Carbon

Elemental Forms of Carbon

Oxides of Carbon

Carbonic Acid and Carbonates


22.10 The Other Group 4A Elements: Si, Ge, Sn, and Pb

General Characteristics of the Group A Elements

Occurrence and Preparation of Silicon




22.11 Boron

A Closer Look: The Hydrogen Economy

Chemistry and Life: Nitroglycerin, Nitric Oxide, and Heart Disease

Chemistry and Life: Arsenic in Drinking Water

Chemistry Put To Work: Carbon Fibers and Composites

23. Transition Metals and Coordination Chemistry

23.1 The Transition Metals

Physical Properties

Electron Configurations and Oxidation States


23.2 Transition-Metal Complexes

The Development of Coordination Chemistry: Werner's Theory

The Metal-Ligand Bond

Charges, Coordination Numbers, and Geometries

23.3 Common Ligands in Coordination Chemistry

Metals and Chelates in Living Systems

23.4 Nomenclature and Isomerism in Coordination Chemistry


Structural Isomerism


23.5 Color and Magnetism in Coordination Chemistry


Magnetism of Coordination Compounds

23.6 Crystal-field Theory

Electron Configurations in Octahedral Complexes

Tetrahedral and Square-Planar Complexes

Design an Experiment

A Closer Look: Entropy and the Chelate Effect

Chemistry and Life: The Battle for Iron in Living Systems

A Closer Look: Charge-Transfer Color

24. The Chemistry of Life: Organic and Biological Chemistry

24.1 General Characteristics of Organic Molecules

The Structures of Organic Molecules

The Stability of Organic Compounds

Solubility and Acid-Base Properties of Organic Compounds

24.2 Introduction to Hydrocarbons

Structures of Alkanes

Structural Isomers

Nomenclature of Alkanes


Reactions of Alkanes

24.3 Alkenes, Alkynes, and Aromatic Hydrocarbons



Addition Reactions of Alkenes and Alkynes

Aromatic Hydrocarbons

Stabilization of p Electrons by Delocalization

Substitution Reactions of Aromatic Hydrocarbons

24.4 Organic Functional Groups



Aldehydes and Ketones

Carboxylic Acids and Esters

Amines and Amides

24.5 Chirality in Organic Chemistry

24.6 Introduction to Biochemistry

24.7 Proteins

Amino Acids

Polypeptides and Proteins

Protein Structure

24.8 Carbohydrates



24.9 Lipids



24.10 Nucleic Acids

Design an Experiment

Chemistry Put To Work: Gasoline

A Closer Look: Mechanism of Addition Reactions



Mathematical Operations

Properties of Water

Thermodynamic Quantities for Selected Substances at 298.15 K (25 DegreesC)

Aqueous Equilibrium Constants

Standard Reduction Potentials at 25 DegreesC

Answers to Selected Exercises

Answers to Give It Some Thought

Answers to Go Figure

Answer to Selected Practice Exercises


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